“Mr. Brady has done something to bring home to us the terrible reality and earnestness of war. If he has not brought bodies and laid them in our dooryards and along the streets, he has done something very like it.”
The New York Times on Oct. 20, 1862
The great US Civil War historian Shelby Foote, once commented that the Civil War fundamentally changed the US linguistically from ‘the United States are…‘ to ‘the United States is…‘. A rather perfect outline of the result of the war. But there’s another interesting result of the conflict. The Civil War also introduced photography to journalism.
Lincoln recognised the power of photography, having joked that he may never have been re-elected without Mathew Brady’s portrait. Lincoln knew by 1865 the importance of photography, because its use in the US Civil War helped to diminish northern support for the Union forces, the moment hundreds of photographers invaded the battlefield at the end of a battle.
It was one thing to read letters from the front line (this also struck a blow to Northern support for the war, given the growth of the postal service at this time), but it was a completely different thing to see broken and torn corpses strewn across the battlefield, from a quiet house in northern towns and cities, far from the frontlines. The birth of Photojournalism at this point brought images of hell, to every American house in the country.
Today, they give us an incredible documentation of that four year period that cost so many lives, made so many political careers, and gave birth to ‘the United States is…‘.
Here are a few that caught my attention. Click the images, for larger versions.
A Confederate soldier, killed at the Battle of Spotsylvania Courthouse:
The inauguration of Confederate President Jefferson Davis, 1861:
Union War General, and 18th President of the United States, Ulysses S.Grant. 1863:
Confederate troops killed at Antietam:
A slave family on a cotton plantation in Georgia:
President Lincoln, with the Glaswegian Allan Pinkerton on the left, and Union General John McClernand:
A regiment in formation, in Missouri:
The 8th New York State Militia:
Confederate Commander Robert E.Lee:
Union Troops at Fredericksburg:
Union General, and scorched Earth enthusiast, William Tecumseh Sherman:
Confederate Soldiers killed, at Spotsylvania Court House. 1864:
The camp of the 31st Pennsylvania Infantry, outside of Fort Slocum. 1862. A lot of wives and children insisted on joining their husbands at camp:
Confederate Soldiers of Louisiana’s Washington Artillery, preparing for the Battle of Shiloh. 1862:
President Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address:
A Union camp:
The flag of the 8th Pennsylvania Reserves. 1864:
Civil War Photography was used for a duel purpose. Firstly, we see from the horrendous images of those killed in battle, those young men who lost their lives so early, for a war that shaped the US ever since; as the New York Times pointed out in 1862, those images brought the horrors of war to the doorstep of every American. Secondly, the photography of the Civil War was used to create heroes out of its leaders. Tecumseh Sherman is sitting mightily, back straight, in a leadership pose atop his horse, in eerily similar pictures to early paintings of George Washington similarly used to convey a sense of majesty and honour. Similar images from the Mathew Brady collection show us Lincoln, as a towering figure, looking purposeful. Civil War photography helped propel the face of Ulysses Grant into the minds of millions. Photojournalism was a key component of the US Civil War and its legacy can be seen whenever we are presented with the horrors of war and conflict, and the images of World leaders appearing to look determined and thoughtful. US Civil War Photojournalism is an often forgotten, but vastly important contribution to the modern World.